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Animals or fungus
In the early 80s soon after the public took notice of the circles for the first time two voices came up and until today make them-selves heard.
One (of course) spoke of extraterrestrians the other (of course) of a man-made joke, a bet made in a pub. At that time well thought out theories were few. Nevertheless we'll quote of them because it has a certain charm and thus should not be lost among many serious theories: Crop circles are made by copulating hedgehogs. During the orgiastic act they'd move in circles and thus trample down the crops.

When the first circles with rings showed up ... the theory was refined
The rings are made by other hedgehogs - 'the public'- that watch the main actors from a discreet distance and, inspired and in ecstacy, follow their circuit. Variations of this theory speak of other protagonists like rabbits or birds. In the course of the years, however, this explanation showed more and more gaps and (unfortunately) disappeared as signs and pictograms grew more complex.

Many sceptics point to a virus or fungus on the grain. This infection hinders the growth of the corn or leads to deformities.
Grain infected with this virus or fungus will grow bent or lies down accidentally. Rings, however, that show up on grass or regularly mowed lawn have nothing in common with the crop circles. They are caused by a parasitary fungus known as Marasmus ordeades or Clitocybe gigantea. These fungusses cause the grass to grow in rings that are darker in colour and therefore distinctly differ from the surroundings within and outside the ring. The ring often remains for years and constantly extends its size. Cropcircles are a completely different phenomenon because on grain a fungus won't lead to the well-known spiral bends in the formations. It is more likely that the ears would soften and break like mikado sticks. More complex pictograms would be impossible. And so the hardest sceptics don't take this into consideration. In their opinion a natural cause - fungus - brought up simple forms 'circlesor rings' and provoked a competition among landscape artists who tried to outdo one another, by which naive researches were taken in or even knowingly played the game. A rather bizarre view, marked by a great deal of arrogance and ignorance - or yet more likely paranoia and conspiracy theory?

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The ionized plasma vortex
After 11 years of study Dr. George Terence Meaden defined the ionized plasma vortex theory.
The hypothesis is, that there exists an energetic vortex unknown until then, an enormous spiral- or ring-formed power which influences the corn field by its unexpected electro-magnetical characteristics.
Among the scientists with who Dr. Meaden worked on this theory were many meteorologists and physicists who soon came up with the insight that the existence of the circles didn't interfere with any physical laws.
According to this theory the circles are caused by the sinking down of an energetic vortex from the atmosphere. A vortex so ionized that it should be seen as a form of cold plasma of low density which causes a strong electromagnetical field. Meaden is of the opinion that these vortexes are structured turbulances in the lower atmosphere set into movement by winds which pass by topographic obstacles. Frequent sightings of circles near hillsides lead to this theory, and circles in low regions were explained by the fact that hills even at a distance of several kilometers were still under the influence of circle causing vortexes.

The lee sided vortex can have a certain duration before the collaps
A major prerequisition for the building up of a vortex seems to be a quiet air mass with good, stable layers which even at the presence of a continuing weak current remains stable in itself. Then another air mass comes near, a small front with a clear borderline and moving at higher speed. Normally this ridge comes from another direction and has different thermo-hygrometrical-electrical and spraying characteristics. While the speed of the wind increases at the lee side of critically protruding obstacles (round hills and peaks of steep banks) vortex hoses build up. In the last moment the system collapses, throws down a vortex and causes a circle-formed effect. The lee-side vortex can have a certain duration - up to several minutes- but the collapse, however, effectuates very quickly.

Dust particles water steam and a strong magnetic field
The energy within this enormous vortex develops from the concentration of the energy of the arriving air masses in the minimal volumina of the developing vortex hose. It's torgue - together with dust particles or water steam-is most likely the major cause of rotating electrical charges and the strong magnetic field. Then, depending of the distribution of these charges within the vortex, in corn and ground, the vortex plunges down or rather softly sinks on the corn. Sometimes there seems to be a repulsion so that the corn is not or just slightly touched. In rings only hard to discern only the ears are bent.

At the end of the 80s widely accepted
This explanation for the existence of the cropcircles Dr. Meaden came up with in the late 80s was widely accepted among scientists. But there were quite a lot of sceptics, too, because Dr. Meaden extended or changed his theory after the apparition of new patterns, and at last turned down everything that couldn't be explained by his theory as man-made. In the course of time and with the growing complexity of the circle signs the plasma-vortex definitely seemed to disappear. And even Dr. Meaden dissociated from his former research.

Yet - similar to the 'hedgehog and fungus theories' mentioned before today the plasma vortex is taken again into consideration. The inconceivability of today's patterns inducesmany a sceptic to divide cropcircle in two groups: on the one hand a natural or original phenomenon (circles and rings) and on the other hand in man-made humbug inspired thereby.

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The earth's energetic vibrations
From the beginning there were supporters of the theory that crop circles sprang from energetic vibrations coming from within the earth. Diviners are convinced that the whole crust of the earth is covered with a fine net of energy lines at whose intersections powers build up which cause the development of crop circles. These energy lines branch out or bundle in certain points and thus form a net of nerves of our planet. Many realists reject divining or using a pendulum as esoteric nonsense although it has been used for ages to find water adders, lost objects, hidden information - or energy lines. It is a mysterious art which makes use of many objects like copper wires, pendulums, switches or simple branches. According to many diviners the cropcircles often appear at locations where these energy lines cross, bundle or are extremely manifest.

Past cultures felt these energy lines intuitively, so diviners, and placed their centres of cult worship accordingly. Today a scientific prove for the existence of such energy lines is not possible yet but nevertheless the theory must not necessarily be put in the land of phantasy.

Stop smoking or acupuncture as a healing method
Far east cultures accept the existence of energy lines and Feng Shui which in our culture, too, grows in influence and focusses on taking into account these lines in the construction of buildings and placing furniture in a room in order not to interfere with the natural flow of energy of a place or within a room. Well-known healing methodes in asian cultures - like acupuncture or acupressure - which focus on different chakra centres, i. e. energy knots, are similar and related to these energy lines of the earth.

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The awareness of all things
To put it simply: all things have an awareness. According to this theory crop circles could be a transmission of information, a special form of awareness by morphic resonance in which different realities coincide - our threedimensional reality and other four-, five-, sixdimensional realities. Existing structures could be emotionally loaded; caused by rituals, archetypical symbols (which seems logical near places of cult worship) these morphogenetic fields could be stored and at a certain point be reactivated or retrieved.

Could the fields have memorized?
According to this theory the century-old village oak for example would have not only an awareness but also a huge memory chip. In the course of centuries this oak could have memorized the talk of the elders sitting around its trunk and holding their discussions, and at some point it could release the contents again. A similar thing could have happened with the corn fields: Could not the field itself have memorized the cultic dances of the druids and now 'broadcast' the patterns of their dances?

Was Stonehenge built on a crop circle site?
This theory stands within the context of the question, why the circles often show up very close to neolithic places of cult worship. Stonehenge and many tumuli withstood the tooth of time only by chance. In the centuries past the cultural value of these places of worship often was neglected and the monument abused as quarries. The stones were moved and chipped to use them to build houses. There were many more such monuments than the ones visible today, and surely a lot of them hasn't even been found. So why - according to the theory of morphogenetic fields - shouldn't there have been other cultic places near the stone circles known today which are now reproduced by the fields in question?

The duplicity also leads to the question: What was first? Did at first the circles appear and then the monuments were erected or vice versa? To many people the similarity between the old stone settings and the crop circles of today is obvious so that they argue, there must have been circles even since pre-history. They believe, druids of the past had identified the circles as signs from the gods and that they had erected places of worship where the circles appeared. Logically in circle formations, too, because the gods had shown them. The dances and community rites held around these places of worship were memorized by the fields and - this is the reason for today's cropcircles today.

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The energy of all life
A theory discussed is the theory of orgon energy by Dr. Wilhelm Reich protege of Sigmund Freud. To some people this theory, developed long before the appearance of today's cropcircles, seems apt to explain the existence of geometric signs in corn fields. The orgon energy which Dr. Reich also called life energy comes from the light of the sun, in fact from the corona, and thus is evident in the whole atmosphere of the earth in different quality and concentration.

Depending on sun spots in the 80ies?
Supporters of the orgon energy interpret the growing activity of crop circles as the result of a growing sun-spot activity in the 80ies (as well as
the weakening of the ozone layer which is responsible that a higher concentration of energy reaches the lower atmosphere and the surface of the earth). Orgon energy is absorbed and stored by organic substances until a degree of saturation is reached. Anorganic substances, however, repel it at once.

Accumulation points in the earth
Some researchers therefore interpret the conincidence of the circles with prehistoric constructions (e. g., tombs) as some sort of accumulation or-in other words - these monuments act as condensators of the orgon energy.
The coincidence of such tombs with the energy lines of the earth mentioned already seems to be logical thanks to the formerly present ability of man to find these energy lines and to build monuments at those places. An accumulator which has reached its saturation will start to set free a surplus of energy. In the dark this will be visible as a shine which would explain the often noted lighting phenomena close to such tombs. Perhaps an indication why the phenomenon appears for years in the very same fields.
Orgon energy might also explain why in some years the circles take their
time whereas in others numerous circles are seen in early May already.
Prehistoric monuments, the accumulators, need orgon energy to get loaded which takes longer when the spring wheather is bad. According to Dr. Reich orgon energy could be responsible for earth magnetic and gravitation fields and that again could explain electromagnetical variations where compass needles are deflected or where malfunctions of cameras or magnetic tapes were recorded.

Dr. Reich furthermore pointed out the healing powers of the orgon energy which again corresponds to certain reports about people that noticed a well-being when entering a crop circle.

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There is no spoon
Another approach to explain the cropcircles worth quoting is the sixdimensional quantum field theory according to Burkhard Heim. According to this we live in a (at least) sixdimensional universe. The first three dimensions are the measurable and known spatial dimensions height, width and depth. In addition there is time as the fourth (and ficticious) dimension.
Following the relativity theory time is a ficticious tool to measure the different stages of an event. Added to this fourdimensional view of the world we know are 2 other dimensions, fictional as is time. The fifth dimension is the so-called entelechial dimension of the world, it is-simply put-the sum of all possibilities. And the sixth or aeonic dimension is the real version of reality referring to the sum of all possibilities.

A short explanation
A thought as such can be measured physically. By measuring the electric
currents in the brain (EEG) it is possible to prove that a person experiences an emotional eruption-for example when dreaming. The content of the thought can't be measured, only the chemical reactions can be proved. But nevertheless the thoughts are real and everybody will know what he thought when he thought. In a certain way the thought is real even though it is an individual and subjective experience. The theory supposes that this thought could exist in reality-as it is for the individual person.
This means if the fourth dimension, time, is ficticious but neverthe-less real, a thought, too, can be real. Time for this thought, however, plays no role. Neither does space. This is obvious because everybody has experienced being out of time and space, far away from the rules of physics-in a dream.
And the next morning the dream often remains conscious. So according to this theory there are is a wide range of possibilities which could co-exist independent of any border and all of them could be equally real. This is where the aeonic dimension comes into play which is the dimension where what is thought of becomes real.

Many different dimensions
Just imagine a film strip which in its sequence of pictures shows motion. The entelechial dimension would be a multitude of film strips with ever different motion sequences. These film strips could be different from each other but they could have similarities as well. Connecting the respective pictures of the films by a red line-not necessarily in a linear way and on the same level- you get the aeonic dimension, reality. But using a pen of a different colour a second motion sequence could appear.
This means: There are as many aeonic dimensions of the world as there are entelechial ones. Thoughts are free. Because of large fluctuations of energy within the different dimensions, possibly in parallel dimensions, too, a shorttime transfer of energy between the dimensions could take place and leave effects on the other dimension. This theory could explain almost every paranormal phenomenon. The most common phenomenon, often interpreted as 'coincidence', is knowing who is on the phone before picking it up, the many reports of mothers who felt in the very second that their son was wounded or had died in the war although they were thousands of miles away.
Stigmata as well could be thus explained, religious apparitions (e. g. in Fatima) or an alleged success at a seance where the spirits of the deceased are conjured up and eventually became manifest. In the light of this theory the UFO-phenomenon should be reconsidered, as well as that of the crop circles.

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One dilemma in crop circle research is that after almost 20 years of intense analyzing there still is no absolutely conclusive test to divide authentic circles from fake ones. One reason for this is that every new apparition at once attracts circle tourists. Many visitors trample straight up to the formation without thought and do not follow the tractor tracks. The damage done to the corn not only maddens the farmers but also the researchers who feel the anger of the farmers. Also important details can be destroyed and thus possible proofs for the authenticity of the circle. Some researchers claim even highly complex crop circle formations to be fake as soon as there are traces of human intrusion in the formation.
As many formations are visible from roads or hillsides it is only logical that careless circle enthousiasts already walk into the fields while researchers still ask for permission to analyze the formation or before they even know of it. Only a few apparitions were univocally and without doubt declared as either authentic or fake. Among them count a number of apparitions which appeared according to eye witnesses just like that, out of the blue sky. Also a couple of circles made in front of the camera to demonstrate the techniques of forgers. But if numerous researchers have declared one or the other circle as forgery there must be an authentic phenomenon, too. Und indeed even confessing counterfeiter groups speak of a true phenome-non behind the whole affair and which they imitate. But what exactly is a fake? It's quite hard to prove it.

Experimental circle settings which try to establish contact with the real circle makers do not count as forgery.
Two german researchers, Joachim Koch and Hans-Juergen Kyborg, create formations in corn fields - with the approval of the farmer. They try to imitate existing circle apparitions deliberately and in public as an answer to the circle makers. And yet there are many who call such formations forgery. Others claim there could be a connection between these formations and the new ones following which are then ascribed to the real phenomenon. Seen this way experimental man-made formations are not forgery in the true sense of the meaning but rather support and extension of the real phenomenon and as such play a fund-amental part in the whole context. But so far nobody knows for sure and, like many other aspects, this is only theory. Researchers are divided on the question how to separate fake from original.
Taking a closer look it becomes obvious that many formations have nothing in common with the intricately worked out patterns the phenomenon is able to create. The outer form already is not precise, let alone the inner ground pattern, and it is quite clear who is responsible for such formations. On the other hand there are chaotic formations where a classification of the geometric layout is hardly possible but in which the design on the ground is astonishingly well worked out. The researchers are divided in this question, too: Some only believe in the authenticity of circles where mysterious attendent circumstances were reported -like light apparitions, UFO-sightings, failure of technical gear and such - or where strange vibrations of energy were noted. These vibrations are recorded with the help of divining rods or pendulums but - as mentioned before - this art is not for everyone and therefore doesn't count as scientific proof.

Some statistics
The statistic truth is that in every season only an average of about 3% of all sightings are unanimously regarded as obvious forgery. This doesn't imply, however, that indeed only 3 % are fakes but it leaves a great amount of formations which have not been explained or cannot be explained until today. All formations declared as forgeries by different researchers in sum only make up about 10% of each year's apparitions. All events in the past 20 years in England alone sum up to an average of 300 sightings a year. This means: Every year there are more than 250 formations unexplained. And again the question: Who made them?
This question gains the more weight because - after the circle competition of 1992 - several other attempts were made to lay crop circles. The outcome was that apt forgers were able to reconstruct even more complex formations - but only their geometric basic form. The inner structures were chaotic and badly worked out and couldn't stand comparison with the circles classified as authentic. Apart from that most of these attempts were made under hardly comparable circumstances, in broad daylight and with permission of the landowners. No reason there to make haste to remain unnoticed, and still the forgers needed almost 3 minutes for each single circle. A formation like the Wind Mill of 1996 remains unexplained and not reconstructable, taking into consideration the short period of darkness in a midsummer night. Apart from that most of the circles, build with the help of a rope working as compasses, were round. As it is a characteristic, however, that most of the cropcircles are not perfectly circular but rather elliptic and that the beginning of the windings is not (!) within the geometric center of the formation, those theories that declare the whole phenomenon as man-made nonsense cannot nearly explain it's manifold aspects.

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Whoever works on crop circles cannot neglect the possible interactive aspect between human thoughts and the circles themselves. There are many circle apparitions that seem to be reactions to those thoughts. When in the middle of the 80s the circles developed rings, Busty Tailor said when flying with a fellow researcher over a quincunx-formation: All that's missing now is a mixture of both, quincunx and ring. Shortly afterwards they flew over a formation near Charity Downs which had not been reported before: the first Celtic Cross. The german crop circle researcher and UFO-supporter Michael Hesemann claims that one day in the sommer of 1991 he had wished for a six-ended star in the corn. The next day exactly this design was found in a field near Cheesefoot Head. In late July 1992 a group of researchers meditated on a equilateral triange consisting of circles and beams. On July 24 such a pattern appeared for the first time near Oliver's Castle.
These reports can hardly be checked for their content of truth, too much depends on the statements of the persons in question. But they do have their fascinating aspects, and to put aside all those formations as forgery to many seems too easy. Two other formations not far from Stratford-upon-Avon fall into this category. Each year an open-air festival with different rock and pop groups takes places there. In 1995 the logo of a participating band appeared. The manager of the band as well as the group members swear the hadn't launched a PR gag. The same scenario happened again in 1997 when on July 16 again the logo of a band playing the festival appeared in the corn. The way the ears were pressed to the ground was declared as authentic by researchers. And again no one claimed responsibility for this PR gimmick and many take it as an example for the interactive synchronicity of the phenomenon.
Some of the crop circles - according to some researchers - have been prophecied by mediumistically gifted seers. And not only concerning the form but the location as well. If this might be a skilled and effective confirmation for their own theories of origin may be left open.
One the one hand this could be a calculated game with the supporters and fans of the circles to strengthen their belief in supernatural messages. On the other hand there are quite a few that think these confirmations are absolutely credible. As well as there is a fraction of supporters of the circle scene who are convinced the circles are man-made but nevertheless no fakes, because the researchers act under duress to lay exactly these patterns into the fields. But why? The supporters of these theories remain silent about that. But possibly it is indeed a supernatural power that via telepathy tells human circle makers what designs to make and that provides them with the talent and motivation needed for such an activity. This might sound bizarre but there are some researchers who play with such ideas.

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Ever since 1991 when Doug and Dave first claimed to be the creators of the circles more and more selfmade forger teams crawled out of the bush, like the Wessex Sceptics or Jim Schnabel, a one-man-show. Today Team Satan around Rod Dickinson is the best known. Dickinson and his comrade John Lundberg claim for years to be the originators of numerous circles and pictograms in the fields around Wiltshire. Naturally they did not give proof of their work, they play with the supporters- belief and the researchers-results and profit by their controverse discussions. Many of the biggest and most astonishing apparitions are claimed by Team Satan, e. g. the snow flakes of 1997 and also the formations of Stonehenge and Windmill Hill from the year before.

The theory of selfmade forgers who attribute all the crop circles to a man made joke,however, suffers from a couple of important inconsistencies. Dickinson himself agrees to certain paranormal phenomena. He speaks of time lags, light apparitions and even cases of spontaneous healing in his circles. Where these could come from, however, he cannot tell. It remains questionable whether this is part of his art in which he states he just wanted to depict the UFO-belief and push the mysticism which he himself sees as the original phenomenon: Mankind's tendency to believe in supernatural forces and, in our century, even in extraterres-trials. He emphasizes not to play with the hopes and wishes of the supporters or even to make fun of them but that - on the contrary - he wants to give people what they are longing for. For him, too, the paranormal attendent
circumstances are an effect he cannot explain. This messianic nonsense is carried even farther by the assertion that Team Satan sometimes experienced inspiration to lay out this or that design. The circlemakers as Dickinson and Cie sometimes call themselves claim to have gotten to the circles by sheer chance, unwittingly and driven only by the motivation to do any-thing. Over the years circle researchers have found out that many pictograms follow a holy or euclidic geometry, an age-old mathematical system that Dickinson hadn't known before. He claimed to be astonished himself of the content of his circles. He'd just begun to lay circles without knowing the system they based on. Even today he hears an inner voice that tells him to make certain forms. Whose voice is it? He doesn't know, he just listens and follows ...
Yet Team Satan made enormous attempts to lay circles and to demystify them. In New Zealand the circlemakers created an extensive fractal in a field to prove that they indeed are the originators of many circles. But why in New Zealand, far from the researchers who had been able to analyze the ground pattern. Seen from an arial view the pictogram is quite well done but why there are neither ground nor zoom photos? The field in question was harvested immediately afterwards.
On the other hand in 1998 Dickinson and his team laid another extensive design in a field near Milk Hill to convince the public of the human component of the phenomenon and then to trap the researchers hoping they would declare this new circle as authentic and impossible to be of human origin. But again: When the circle was made secretely with the support of a big TV company nearly all of the researchers were at a congress in Glastonbury, about 80 km away. None could convince himself of the condition on the ground. When in the afternoon the researchers came, the corn was heavily trampled by the many curious visitors to the new formation in the morning. When some researchers said that surely this had been quite a piece of work but the position of the ears had nothing in common with the precision of the real phenomenon, Dickinson's answer was not that it had been destroyed by many onlookers but that it had been conceived as a fake from the beginning.
In 1998 Mitsubishi hired Team Satan to lay the new Mitsubishi Space Star in the renowned East Field of Alton Barnes as a publicity gimmick, an order they were happy to fulfill. At first Mitsubishi wanted only a tire to be laid in the field, the rest of the car should be constructed on PC. Team Satan, convinced of their talent, insisted to design the whole car in the field. They got the OK and the circlemakers set to work. And it took them 12 hours to do the job. In broad daylight!
In their homepage they give reason why they took so long. Of course it would be fatal if you want to start an advertising campaign for Mitsubishi and what comes out has the contours of a BMW. But do the circlemakers really want to make us believe that the contours of a car should be far more complicated than the 7-edge snow flake of Tawesmead Copse from 1998 which could have been made in deep sleep and at darkest night.
Surely teams of talented forgers have created a lot of crop circles during the last years. But there is no indication of a general forger phenomenon. Paranormal light apparitions and eye witness reports of the development of a crop circle - and there are not only those of single circles but also those of pictograms - remain unexplained. And also the events of previous years, of the pre-Doug-and-Dave-phase and their said beginning around 1978 are not explained until today. The same is true for the independent results of biologist Dr. Levengood who found molecular mutations within the cellular structure of many stems in the crop circles. These changes could not be simulated by flattening the corn but are more likely caused by some sort of micro wave radiation. Anyway: Dickinson and consorts were unable to reproduce them.

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The Heck Hypothesis
According to Kenneth Heck, crop circles tell the story of a number of comets which will be striking the earth over the next 250 some years. These comets and their major fragments will be intentionally directed by aliens, the circle makers, to hit pre-determined impact points. As mankind transitions from the present era to the next, the tough times ahead will remove access to most animal protein for the world’s population; new genetically altered plant species will bridge the protein gap. The author explains that comets impacting the planet have been an implicit requirement for new species since life first arose on earth. His book, “The Heck Hypothesis: Crop Circle Insight" systematically interprets over 1600 crop circles.

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A new form of communication?
The trials to explain extraterrestric intelligence lead to the idea that a message could hide behind the phenomenon. Since the formation of Barbury Castle or the Mandelbrot-set of 1991 at the latest many held that to be the undisputed truth. Supposing that many of the formations are not man-made the designs get a totally different dimension. If there is a meaning behind the circles it is obvious to believe that they are a form of communication.
If extraterrestrials indeed had found us and supposing they were well-disposed towards us they certainly wouldn't say hello- we're here-we exist but they'd more likely chose a more subtle way to communicate. The moment they'd introduce themselves they'd also want to get to know us. This is how many supporters of the ET-theory argue for the fact that the circles simply started to appear at a certain moment and increased over the years in size, number and complexity. This could be understood as some sort of test whether we are willing, able and intelligent enough to resume communication.
talk to us
The bilateral component of the phenomenon, too,is explained by this theory. There are numerous reports where circle researchers uttered their wish to find this or that new formation and only shortly afterwards these formations appeared. A much discussed formation could support this theory: In 1991 when Doug and Dave came out of the bush an american journalist and UFO-believer cut - with the approval of the farmer - the words TALK TO US! into a field. A couple of days later the inscript on Milk Hill appeared which until today caused many speculations. Leading circle specialists take them as authentic and many approaches for interpretation were made. CCCS (Centre for Crip Circle Studies) chairman and archeologist Michael Greene interpreted the hieroglyphs as Senzar, an old script in which the Book of Dzyan of the theosophs was written. He translated the words as Ptah Enki, meaning 'the Creator, wise and kind'. Thus it would be some sort of autograph? Another researcher, astronomer Gerald Hawkins, who analyzed Stonehenge and interpreted it as a prehistoric observatory, also took a closer look at the script. He supposed six signs in the following arrangement:
oppono astos:
0 || 122131 || 45615 || 0

With the help of a linguistic computer he went through 18.000 different possibilities in 42 known languages. The only one that made sense was the latin OPPONO ASTOS meaning I AM aGAINST FRAUD (i am against [oppono] craftiness and tricks [astos as the plural accusative case of astus]. A proof for deliberate communication?

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Landing tracks
Many crop circles come along with mysterious light apparitions. When the first quintuplets appeared it was obvious to believe they could be landing tracks of spacecraft. A thought that came up because of the symmetric position of the single circles in many formations, similar to the tracks of the lunar module. Such theories were inspired by the common UFO reports where often is talk of circles on the ground at the places where supposedly an UFO landed. But why these spaceships should have landed on almost waist-high grain instead of on the grass - his question was never scrutinized. Possibly because it was softer? This was for quite some time the predominant opinion, at least concerning the simpler formations, but of course not for all those who from the beginning believed that the formations were man-made. When the supporters of this theory realized that the grain in question is not only pressed down but wound in a spiral form they explained that energy vortexes from the landing process were responsible, caused by driving systems unknown to us. It's easy to become ironic or even cynical facing all those different explana-tions, but as nobody knows exactly who or what is at the root of the phenomenon all theories should be considered in a neutral way. If we follow the explanation of landing tracks of an unknown drive, the first doubts arrive at a closer look at the formations. For example there was a five-fold formation where four circles were wound in clock-wise sense but one of the satellite circles was wound the opposite way. Unknown drive is unknown drive. But landing tracks of spaceship are hardly compatible with the pictograms which appear since 1990 and even less with the complex symbols of insectograms, scorpios, snow flakes etc. Thus this theory seems not feasible to explain the manifold patterns in the corn.
The theory of landing tracks became more and more neglected and replaced by the idea that spaceship were involved but that the circles did not originate from the landing process but from some sort of radiation from the spaceships. Many are convinced that indeed light apparitions could be closely related with an unknown form of material radiation which allows to precisely and geometrically accurately cut the patterns in the corn. This could explain many special features of the circle phenomenon like the different ways the ears in the circles lie on the ground. Such a form of energy could be able to draw a sketch into the field - the contours of the formation - and then press down the complete design according to this pattern. A form of energy orientated towards a certain medium could also explain why neighbouring stems are often untouched. It is conceivable that the bundled beam of energy has orientated its intensity towards - say barley - and thus stems of a different grain or singularly growing poppy will stay untouched.
Another aspect which supports this theory is the fact that such a beam of energy could create the circles without any other physical traces apart from the original formation. An example are the grapeshots that often can be found in the middle of tractor tracks but without any visible connection.
The theory does not explain, however, how and whence these spaceships should come down to earth. As of yet no proof has been found for the existence of intelligent life beyond our planet this theory seems questionable, too - or: Are the crop circles the missing proof?

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The earth as an intelligent super organism
As is the case with many paranormal phenomena for some the existence of extraterrestrials seems to be the only logical cause to explain what (still) can't be explained. The abduction theory, believed by many, is one of the great mysteries of our time. Numerous people state to have been abducted by extraterrestrials and brought abord their spaceships. Many report - often under hypnosis - to have been medically analyzed by the extraterrestrials and to have undergone chirurgical operation. Many others doubt the credibility of such reports; Hollywood is too close. Indeed it can be doubted whether these experiences are often reported the same way: Is it because there are so many of them or because they really did happen the same way? Hen or egg?

Devas and earth guards
The context to the crop circles does not evolve at first sight but many of the abducted report under hypnosis that the extraterrestrials showed them symbols which either had already appeared as cropcircles or - even more astounding - appeared shortly afterwards. Other people who had been abducted years and decades before insisted the ETs had prophecied that crop circles would appear and had shown them pictures of future apparitions. Again others reported they'd watched the Greys (in many reports extraterrestrials are called Greys and described as small in size, with big eyes and small mouths, a grey leathery skin and long extremities and communicating through telepathy) laying patterns in the fields or later scrutinizing them. In 1994 a group of youngsters reported that near Silbury Hill they'd become witness of the landing of a spaceship. Small grey creators had come out of the ship and had started to lay a circle formation in the opposite field.
Many do not doubt the truth of these story in the least and they take them as a definite proof for the existence of extraterrestrials. In his book Crop Circles published in 1996 Michael Hesemann described a number of these UFO-sightings. Doug Ruby, author of The Gift, even goes further: He describes the cropcircles as some sort of blueprint, sketches of the drive technology of the extraterrestrials. As a sign of well-disposal towards us and friendly communication the ETs offer them to us.

Open your mind
All sorts of light apparitions have been described over the years in connection with the crop circles. According to the UFO-belief which in the meantime seems well anchored in our world and lacking other theories they are often classified as spaceships. The description of such sightings stays fascinating all the same, some of them are said to have send out light beams over the fields and created cropcircles that way. A big dark object is said to have hovered over Barbury Castle the night in which in 1991 the huge triangle appeared. But most reports tell of such spaceships over already existing circles, as if they were inspecting them. But why should extraterrestrial spaceships scrutinize the formations? Do they want to convince themselves of their work or are they equally surprised by the riddle like the many visitors and researches who roam the fields every summer?
Psychological tests give reason to believe that there could be a close connection between human consciousness and the UFO-sightings. Possibly the extraterrestrials have a certain talent to use telepathy. Thinking of crop circles this is an interesting idea because some of the circle apparitions seem to correspond to human thought. Many state that UFO-sightings are a 2-way-process where one interferes with or even requires the other. C.G. Jung calls these UFO-reports as a mass psychotic collective awareness.
This could also explain why in the reports of eye witnesses the extraterrestrials always look the same. Either they indeed have this appearance or the image projected from the subconscious just corresponds to the known descriptions. It is interesting to note that there are parallels with another phenomenon, the apparitions of Christ or Mary, where the descriptions of Holy Mary are equally similar.
The question is logical why the Virgin Mary in the sightings of e. g. Fatima is described exactly like we know her from church paintings. Does she really look that way or is it the conception of her according to the old traditions. You could be daring enough to think that she shows herself that way, just because of the old traditions. Apparitions of the Virgin Mary or of extraterrestrials - both phenomena show the same similarities. Both cases concern people with a firm belief in exactly this one thing and thus are willing to see things that stay hidden from other - or do they project these things from their own subconscious?
But the ET-theory as well leaves a number of questions unanswered. Some believe the extraterrestrials want to get in contact with us through those signs. They interpret the crop circles as some sort of cosmic alphabet, a gentle approach to communicate. This may be reasonable. If we take Hollywood as a model the images of catastrophes from box office hits like Independence Day are easy to comprehend. The world order indeed might be turned completely upside down if extraterrestrials would just land on the planet and say, hi, here we are - no matter if they were well-disposed towards us or not. Such a scenario would certainly lead to chaos and disorder, at least at first. This is way the extraterrestrials try to announce themselves quietly and in small steps. At least this is what some say. And this might be reasonable, because the circles could indeed enhance a slowly growing awareness.
Supposing the ETs are well-disposed they might well have chosen not to blur out what they're after but to make themselves noticed slowly and to prepare for a first contact. But then again some people have their doubts. Why do the circles often appear in inaccessible areas where the risk is high that they could be just overlooked or noticed by only a few. Some also find it irritating that the circles are often visible only from the air. If the alien technology is developed enough to project such signs, why aren't they not better visible? Why on flat fields, why in rural and hardly prominent regions? Why not on the White house lawn? Und why at least not significantly bigger? Why is this phenomenon, even though gobal in the meantime, mostly british or european? And why the seemingly regional differences in the design variations? Or are there different extraterrestrials competing among each other over the contact with us? And if the signs are meant to enable communication, why are many of them so unequivocal?
Could they not create clearer signs which we could easily understand? A parallel in many of the abduction reports seems to be that the aliens understand our language. Many of those who say they have been abducted to a spaceship also say the aliens had communicated with them - even though through telepathy. So why are there no human language signs in the fields? But perhaps with respect to the different races and people on our planet they chose the universal language of geometry and mathematics to establish contact.

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Cosmic connection
In his book The Cosmic Connection Michael Hesemann comes up with the astonishing thesis that the cropcircle makers might be not so far away from us as some believe. He refers to a theory that researcher Zecharia Sitchin put forward concerning the history of the development of mankind. Not an extraterrestrial race from outer space but inhabitants of the planet Nibiru - extraterrestrial but within our solar system. Sitchin substantiates his supposition by findings of old sumerian tables and seals. The Sumerians had enormous knowledge of our solar system and indeed a sumerian seal dating back to 2400 b. C. depicts our solar system and, as Hesemann claims, astronomically correct. The sun at the center, the planets circling around in correct order and true to scale: The small Mercury, of equal size as Venus and Earth the moon, Mars, the giants Jupiter and Saturn, the twin planets Uranus and Neptune and the small Pluto. Hesemann calls this seal the world's oldest star map. Astonishing indeed is the similarity with today's knowledge of the solar system, especially since man knew only 6 planets until the Renaissance age. Uranus was discovered only in 1781 by astronomer Sir Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel (1738-1822), 65 years later Johann Gottfried Galle (1812-1910) discovered Neptune and the discovery of Pluto even took until 1930.
Nevertheless all of them are shown on the sumerian seal cylinder, and in addition a 10th planet, which is described on the sumerian star map, too.

Hesemann writes:
When the celestial kingdom came down to earth before the great flood', such starts the oldest chronicle of mankind, the sumerian list of kings in the 3rd millennium before Christ. Down to earth? Whence?
Nobody knows where the Sumerians come from. At once, like out of nothing, they appeared around 3800 b. C. and with them their culture. No beginning, no evolution, pure culture. The explanation can be found in the cuneiform script texts. They report how the Gods came down from heaven to earth and created man - in Sumer, the paradise. Their first colony was the city of E.RI.DU meaning -house built at a far away place- which was built on an artificial hill at the mouth of the Euphrat in the middle of the land of edinu (plain) or E.DIN (home of the just), the Garden Eden from the bible. Eridu was to be the namesake of our planet - Ereds in Aramaic, Erd or Ertz in Kurdish, Eretz in Hebrew. Then other gods established other cities. Like a general staff they settled on earth and distributed their areas of responsibility. The lower gods, the Anunnaki, were given responsibility for the development of the Garden Eden: Coming from (god) Anu to follow his orders he placed three hundred of them in the sky as guards to find out the ways to unity, and on earth he let dwell six hundred. After he had given the Anunnaki in the sky and on earth his orders, Enlil distributed the positions. Who were the Anunnaki? Their Akkadian name an-nun-na-ki literally means: Those who came from heaven to earth. The heavon of the Anunnaki according to sumerian texts was NI.BI.RU, the planet of transgression, the center of the sky, a planet in our solar system. Where the Anunnaki extraterrestrial visitors? (=Mankind was created as slave of the gods, the Sumerians said. When the Anunnaki were tired of the burden, the hard work and the pain, the first revolution in history took place. The lesser gods started a mutiny: Every one of us declared war. The exhausting work is killing us. Their moans were heard in the heavens. In the bible the leader of the fallen angels has a name: Luzifer. Enlil wants to execute him but Anu and his son Enki come up with a better idea: A lulu amelu should be created, a primitive worker: Let him carry the burden, let him do the work not suited for the gods. Let us create Man. Soon the solution was found: The creature you named already exists. We only have to join it to the image of the gods. The Anunnaki had noticed that primates, Hominidae, lived not far from Abzu, in East Africa. By impregnation of the egg of a female primate with the divine semen of the Anunnaki rose lulu, literally -the mixed one- whom they called Adama (from earth). Following the pattern of the gods they created the primitive, from their blood they created mankind and gave them the order to free the gods. It was a comprehensive task.

The sumerian texts describe in detail how it took several genetic interventions to complete the creation of man. When men were made they didn't know bread for food and didn't know clothes. They ate plants by mouth like sheep and drank water from a drench. Only by long-term observation of his evolution with punctual genetic intervention and the elimination of degenerated species, e. g. through the Flood, the gods turned man into homo sapiens who was allowed to settle in mud huts around their bases. Moreover, they appointed kings as leaders and priests as their intermediaries who became their disciples while they migrated between heaven and earth in their sky boats.
Indeed, and this speaks for their credibility, the sumerian chronicles cite the correct time and place of the creation of man. Later, with the erection of Eridus about 428.000 years ago, began the reign of the gods over the Land of the Two Rivers. For 144.000 years or 40 schars (the amount of revolutions of Nibirus around the sun) the Anunnaki bore the burden of hard work before they revolted. This means that lulu was created about 280.000 years ago, just above Abzu, north of today's Zimbabwe. This is exactly time and place that paleo-anthropologists and biochemists define for the arrival of Homo Sapiens in East Africa.

Should this bizarre and at the same time phantastic theory be true - where are the Anunnaki now? Acoording to the theory the gods have visited every 3600 years when Nibiru is closest to the earth. There are quite a number of signs indicating the return of the gods somewhere in the not so far future. Will mankind be once again enslaved? All that feel a growing panic may be calm. In the year 1000 a. C. Nibiru has reached the most distant point from the sun and now is on its way back. Yet it won’t be until 2.800 that the planet will come closest to the sun again. No reason to worry.
Not for us, not for our grandchildren.

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   N A T U R A L    E X P L A N A T I O N S
  animals or fungus   ionized plasma
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   A L L    M A D E    B Y    H U M A N S
  experimental   non physical
  hoaxers   land art
   E X T R A T E R R E S T R I A L
  the heck hypothesis   alphabet soup
  landing tracks   communication
  return of the gods